Shot Put and Discus Throwing Specific Training

Dr. Anaoliy Bondarchuk (2007) organized training movements into categories based on the specificity of the movement or physiological response from training.

The terms specific development exercises and competition exercises are used to identify exercises that are directly related to throwing. Specific development exercises are executed using only part of the full competition event, for example, performing a half turn throw in the discus.

 Specific Development Exercises

Specific development exercises (SDE) are skill-specific power exercises using the part method of learning by breaking down the technique into segments. The exercises follow elements of the exact full competitive technique and have a high degree of transfer since the movement closely resembles at least part of the track and field event of the athlete.

  • Similar to competition event physiologically
  • Similar to competition movement
  • Partial technical patterns
  • Exercises without release
  • Exercises with release

Part Method of Learning

Separating technical training into components allows complete focus on one technical cue during a specific exercise. Only after the athlete has achieved technical competence of each phase of the event, should the next step in the process be added.

 

Exercises that match a segment of the movement sequence of the technical skill plus develop at least one other quality related to sports performance are considered specific development exercises. The exercises train the major muscle groups used in part of the competition technique and use the same energy systems, improve muscular strength, or have a high rate of force production.

Specific development exercises typically are designed to enhance three primary categories of movement: competition technique, event-specific strength, and event-specific speed. 

Coaches are often challenged creatively with finding specific exercises to meet the demands of each event’s technical requirements. The transfer of training effect of specific exercises is dependent on the motor abilities and the technical skills of the athlete to coordinate precise movements. General and specific preparation exercises have hundreds of exercise variations; more specific training exercises have a far more limited selection.

It is important to select exercises that indirectly or directly improve performance. The more specific the exercise, the better, especially for well-trained athletes. In throwing, for example, the exercises selected in a training plan should develop one or more of the following: strength, speed, technique, or other athletic abilities that will result in improved throwing performance.

Specific Development Exercise Variations

Partial technical skills will develop athletic abilities such as speed and strength within a specific event and improve the motor patterns related to technique (Issurin & Thome, 2019).

The specific development exercises are used in the teaching progression for the throwing events. There are more specific development exercises available outside of the teaching progression that can be incorporated into the program based the individual needs of the thrower.

Glide Shot Put: Specific Development Exercises (SDE)

Shot Put Stand Throw Variations with Medicine Ball or Shot

Crunch drill left arm open to 180 degrees

Crunch drill left arm to 90 degrees

Crunch drill left arm to 0 degrees

Step with the left into stand throw

Walking stand throw (2-3 steps into stand throw)

Stand throw start, shuffle to throw

Stand throw start, shuffle x2 to throw

Stand throw

Extra wide power position, pick up right leg to stand throw 

Glide Throws with Medicine Ball or Shot

Walking glide throw

Mini glide, pause to stand throw

Glide, pause to stand throw

Glide throw

Double glide throw 

Glide Drills with Finish with Barbell or Stick from Back Squat Position

Walking glide pause to lift barbell overhead

Walking glide to lift barbell overhead

Mini glide pause to lift barbell overhead

Glide to lift barbell overhead

Double glide to lift barbell overhead

Glide Throws with Drop from Box (6”-12”) with Medicine Ball or Shot

Box drop to power position and hold

Box drop, pause to stand throw

Box drop to glide to throw

Rotational Shot Put: Specific Development Exercises (SDE)

Rotational Shot Put Stand Throw Variations

Crunch drill left arm open to 180 degrees

Crunch drill left arm to 90 degrees

Crunch drill left arm to 0 degrees

Step with the left into stand throw

Walking stand throw (2-3 steps into stand throw)

Stand throw start, shuffle to throw

Stand throw start, shuffle x2 to throw

Stand throw

Rotational Shot Put Variations with Medicine Ball Centered or Shot

½ turn throw

Start, step out, step to the middle to ½ turn throw

Start, step to the middle to ½ turn throw

¾ turn throw

Shuffle from step out to ¾ throw

Shuffle x2 from step out to ¾ throw

Rotational Shot Put Drills

Start, step out, step to the middle

Start, step out, step to the middle, turn to power position

Shuffle from step out to power position

Shuffle x2 from step out to power position

Start, turn to power position

Rotational Shot Put Drills with Barbell/Stick in Back Squat Position

Repeat ½ turns

Step out start to step straight and turn to the finish repeats

Step out start to shuffle to ½ turn position

Step out start to shuffle x2 to ½ turn position

Slow full throw finish with barbell overhead

Rotational Shot Put Throws with Drop from Box (6”-12”)

with Medicine Ball Centered or Shot

Box drop stand throw start pause stand throw

Box drop stand throw start to stand throw

Box drop from ½ turn position to ½ turn throw

Step out start to drop and ¾ turn throw

Discus Throw Specific Development Exercises (SDE)

Discus Throw Drills with Barbell/Stick in Back or Front Squat Position

Start, step out, step to the middle

Start, step out, step to the middle, turn to power position

Shuffle from step out to power position

Shuffle x2 from step out to power position

Start, turn to power position

Repeat ½ turns

Step out start to step straight and turn to the finish repeats

Slow full throw finish with barbell overhead or forward

Discus Throw Variations with Medicine Ball Centered/Bars/Cones

Twist to 270 degrees to stand throw

½ turn

¾ turn throw

Start, step out, step to the middle, ½ turn throw

Start, step out, ¾ turn throw

Slow full throw

Full throw (<75% speed)

Full throw (75-90% speed)

Full throw (90+% speed)

Discus Throw Drills and Throws

Easy toss (turn to 180-270 degrees)

Step with the left into stand throw

Walking stand throw (2-3 steps into stand throw)

Stand throw

Start, step out, step to the middle to ½ turn throw

Start, step out, step to the middle to ½ turn throw

Shuffle from step out to ¾ throw

Shuffle x2 from step out to ¾ throw

Discus Throw with Drop from Box (6”-12”) with Medicine Ball Centered

Box drop stand throw start pause stand throw

Box drop stand throw start to stand throw

Box drop from ½ turn position to ½ turn throw

Step out start to drop and ¾ turn throw


Event Connection

It is important to establish connections between different segments of the technique when using the part method in skill-specific exercises. How simple movements relate to the more complex movements must be understood by the athlete when training sport-specific movements to optimize the transfer of training effect.

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